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Volume: 15 | Article ID: art00067_1
An Experimental Setup for Bucket Brigade Toner Transport
  DOI :  10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1999.15.1.art00067_1  Published OnlineJanuary 1999

Traveling electrostatic waves rather than mechanical systems can be used to transport charged toner particles as a controlled aerosol. Extensive theoretical and experimental work on this subject has been done by Masuda, Schmidlin and Melcher et al. These authors used experimental setups with electrodes arranged in a grid structure. Multiple phase shifted sinusoidal voltages were applied to the groups of these electrodes to generate a traveling electrostatic wave.As an alternative to using sinusoidal voltages, we propose a new method. Charged toner particles are transported utilizing the bucket brigade principle as it is used in charged-coupled devices (CCD).For experimental work, a programmable 4-channel high voltage multiplexer has been developed which is able to switch voltages up to 1500 V. A traveling electrostatic wave suitable for toner transport is generated by multiplexing the voltages applied to groups of electrodes in an appropriate manner.In first promising experiments using a Masuda panel, particle transport was achieved with conductive, magnetic monocomponent toner. At low switching frequencies, the charged toner particles moved synchronously in the direction of the traveling wave. A critical frequency was found at which propagation in both directions appeared and above this frequency backwards transport was observed.

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Ralph Kober, Bernhard Hill, "An Experimental Setup for Bucket Brigade Toner Transportin Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP15),  1999,  pp 258 - 261,

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