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Volume: 19 | Article ID: art00011_1
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Statistical Analyses of Adhesive Forces on Electrophotographic Toners
  DOI :  10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2003.19.1.art00011_1  Published OnlineJanuary 2003
Abstract

The statistical distributions of toner adhesive force Fa and detach field Ed, arising from distributions in toner radius r and charge density q are examined mathematically. The widening of Fa distribution and the narrowing of Ed distribution, compared to r and/or q distributions, have been predicted. Since Ed is a quantity more relevant than Fa in electrophotography, this finding suggests that the effects of toner size and/or charge dispersions on toner adhesion in electrophotography may be weaker than generally expected.

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Inan Chen, "Statistical Analyses of Adhesive Forces on Electrophotographic Tonersin Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP19),  2003,  pp 36 - 40,  https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2003.19.1.art00011_1

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