Recent experiments by the author revealed that the transport of conductive, magnetic toner on a traveling wave device significantly differs from that of insulating toner. The major difference results from a critical frequency at which the direction of particle transport reverses.In this paper the traveling wave transport of conductive toner is studied in detail. Toner conveyors with a grid ranging from 10 lpi to 83.3 lpi are used for the experiments. Three toners of different conductivity and particle size are examined. It is shown that the motion of highly conductive toner particles can be affected by higher harmonics of the applied voltages. Thereby, the toner might travel faster than the fundamental of the electrostatic wave. This effect appears at low velocities only.
Ralph Kober, "Traveling Wave Transport of Conductive Toner Particles" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP16), 2000, pp 736 - 739, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2000.16.1.art00079_2