We have studied the effects of toner surface treatment by an additive on toner adhesion force. Toner samples, which have various concentrations of the additive, were prepared and the toner surface coverage by the additive were evaluated by means of the image analysis of electron micrographs. The adhesion force between toner and photoconductor was measured with the centrifugal method. It was found that the non-electrostatic adhesion force rapidly decreased with increasing the surface coverage, and saturated at a certain coverage. A relationship between the non-electrostatic adhesion force and the surface coverage can be explained as the change of van der Waals force. Electrostatic adhesion force increases in proportion to the square of toner charge to mass ratio, and the slope decreases exponentially with increasing the surface coverage. It is suggested that the change of the electrostatic adhesion force by the additive is related to the difference of a charge distribution on toner surface.
Haruo Iimura, Hisao Kurosu, Takeo Yamaguchi, "The Effects of Surface Treatment on Toner Adhesion Force" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP15), 1999, pp 535 - 538, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1999.15.1.art00039_2