The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) characterize imaging system sharpness/resolution and noise, respectively. Both measures are based on linear system theory. However, they are applied routinely to scene-dependent systems applying non-linear,
content-aware image signal processing. For such systems, MTFs/NPSs are derived inaccurately from traditional test charts containing edges, sinusoids, noise or uniform luminance signals, which are unrepresentative of natural scene signals. The dead leaves test chart delivers improved measurements
from scene-dependent systems but still has its limitations. In this article, the authors validate novel scene-and-process-dependent MTF (SPD-MTF) and NPS (SPD-NPS) measures that characterize (i) system performance concerning one scene, (ii) average real-world performance concerning many scenes
or (iii) the level of system scene dependency. The authors also derive novel SPD-NPS and SPD-MTF measures using the dead leaves chart. They demonstrate that the proposed measures are robust and preferable for scene-dependent systems to current measures.