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Volume: 32 | Article ID: art00011
WARHOL: Wearable Holographic Object Labeler
  DOI :  10.2352/ISSN.2470-1173.2020.13.ERVR-381  Published OnlineJanuary 2020

Deep learning has significantly improved the accuracy and robustness of computer vision techniques but is fundamentally limited by access to training data. Pretrained networks and public datasets have enabled the building of many applications with minimal data collection. However, these datasets are often biased: they largely contain images with conventional poses of common objects (e.g., cars, furniture, dogs, cats, etc.). In specialized applications such as user assistance for servicing complex equipment, the objects in question are often not represented in popular datasets (e.g., fuser roll assembly in a printer) and require a variety of unusual poses and lighting conditions making the training of these applications expensive and slow. To overcome these limitations, we propose a fast labeling tool using an Augmented Reality (AR) platform that leverages the 3D geometry and tracking afforded by modern AR systems. Our technique, which we call WARHOL, allows a user to mark boundaries of an object once in world coordinates and then automatically project these to an enormous range of poses and conditions automatically. Our experiments show that object labeling using WARHOL achieves 90% of the localization accuracy in object detection tasks with only 5% of the labeling effort compared to manual labeling. Crucially, WARHOL also allows the annotation of objects with parts that have multiple states (e.g., drawers open or closed, removable parts present or not) with minimal extra user effort. WARHOL also improves on typical object detection bounding boxes using a bounding box refinement network to create perspective-aligned bounding boxes that dramatically improve the localization accuracy and interpretability of detections.

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Matthew Shreve, Bob Price, Les Nelson, Raja Bala, Jin Sun, Srichiran Kumar, "WARHOL: Wearable Holographic Object Labelerin Proc. IS&T Int’l. Symp. on Electronic Imaging: The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality,  2020,  pp 381-1 - 381-10,

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