Toner flow and tribochargeability are strongly influenced by pyrogenic silica particles, depending on the surface chemistry of the pyrogenic silica particles and their particle dimensions. Scanning Force Micorscopy (SFM) is an effective tool to describe surface features and mechanical properties of toner particles. Conventional toners based on polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyester are used; in addition the study covers chemical prepared toners (CPT) as well. Pyrogenic silica particle geometries have an impact on the pyrogenic silica-toner adhesion. Combining smaller and larger pyrogenic silica particle dimensions together with different surface chemistries, providing harder and softer silylation layers, enables to develop models of real pyrogenic silica toner adhesion.For this purpose, dynamic SFM techniques like Tapping Mode (TM) and Pulsed Force Mode (PFM) are used for imaging and modeling of toner surfaces and tonerpyrogenic silica particles.
Sabine Hild, Mario Heinemann, Ute Voelkel, Herbert Barthel, "Adhesion of Silica Particles and Silylated Silicon Tips on Model Toner Surfaces – A SFM Study" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP19), 2003, pp 155 - 160, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2003.19.1.art00038_1