After blending with commercial available pyrogenic silicas commercial available toners based on polystyrene-acrylics or polyesters have been studied by Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM). The focus is on the simultaneous mapping of topographic features and adhesion. For this purpose, dynamic SFM techniques like Tapping Mode (TM) and Pulsed Force Mode (PFM) are used for imaging and modeling of toner surfaces and toner-silica particle interactions.Topographic images of toner particles of different toner binder compositions were recorded. In the topographic images the toner surface are mapped as a rough surface. To localize the hard silica particles phase images are used.To study systematically resin surface interactions a model system has been elected: a blend of polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) may simulate polystyrene-acrylics toner particle surfaces. Due to its chemical composition and its dimension a Si-SiO2 SFM tip can be used as a model for a silica particle. PFM is a suitable tool to investigate adhesive interactions between this Si-SiO2 tip and the polymer surface. Silanization of a Si-SiO2 tip has been proofed to provide a realistic model of silica particles in a silica toner system.
Sabine Hild, Sigrid Koenig, Carl Stefan Imhof, Mario Heinemann, Ute Voelkel, Herbert Barthel, "Silica Adhesion on Toner Surfaces studied by Scanning Force Microscopy" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP18), 2002, pp 651 - 656, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2002.18.1.art00055_2