Charging behavior of toner in the nonmagnetic mono-component developing process was examined experimentally. A developing unit, which consisted of a developing roller, a supply roller and a doctor blade, was fabricated, and charging characteristics of the toner layer on the developing roller surface was investigated. The influence of CCA contained in the toner on its charging was also studied. It was found that the toner particles were charged mainly when they passed the gap between the doctor blade and developing roller. Although a negative toner was used, some toner particles were charged positively. The fraction of wrong sign toner decreased from 22% to 8% by passing the doctor blade. SEM observation suggested that toner particles of small particle size passed the doctor blade more easily.
Norimasa Iwai, Yoichi Yamamoto, Manabu Takeuchi, "Toner Charging Behavior in Mono-Component Developing Process" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP17), 2001, pp 838 - 841, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2001.17.1.art00090_2