The forensic community has traditionally relied on the qualitative examination of large-scale features for the identification of the electrophotographic device which produced a document. When no such large-scale features are present on a document, identification of the electrophotographic device which produced it is not usually possible. The following is a qualitative description of a proposed feasibility study to determine whether or not the small-scale features in non-image areas can be quantified for identification purposes.
Tobin Tanaka, "Metrology of Small Scale Features in Electrophotographic Non-Image Areas as Forensic Evidence" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP17), 2001, pp 590 - 593, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2001.17.1.art00035_2