Toner scattering from a developing roller was examined under various conditions. An apparatus for evaluation of toner scattering was fabricated. Several kinds of toners differing in CCA concentration and a ferrite carrier were used in this study. The amount of scattering toner increased with increases in rotation rate of the sleeve of developing roller and toner concentration in the developer. Toner scattering was minimum for the toner with CCA of 3 %. Wrong sign toner was found to play an important role in toner scattering by forming toner pairing.
Norimasa Iwai, Yoichi Yamamoto, Manabu Takeuchi, "Behavior of Wrong Sign Toner Particles in Electrophotographic Developing Process" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP16), 2000, pp 851 - 854, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2000.16.1.art00106_2