Printing on a wide range of papers (and other substrates) remains a challenge for liquid toner electrophotography. The two main print quality defects produced during transfer are smear and/or microvoids. In this paper we provide causal trees for the origins of these two defects. We focus on the interactions of paper properties with image wetness in causing or eliminating these defects. And we describe the effects of paper coating in eliminating print quality defects by changing paper roughness and porosity.
Ed Caruthers, Weizhong Zhao, "Effects of Paper Properties on Liquid Toner Transfer" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP15), 1999, pp 642 - 645, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1999.15.1.art00068_2