Toner adhesion forces to an aluminum substrate were measured by toner jumping method to study its adhesion mechanism. When measuring the toner adhesion forces by the toner jumping method, toner particles were sprinkled over on one of a pair of parallel aluminum electrodes. The dc voltage applied to the electrode was increased at a constant rate, and the occurrence of the toner jumping was observed by measuring the current flowing between the electrodes. The toner adhesion force was estimated from the voltage at the occurrence of the toner jumping. The numbers of toner particles that have a certain adhesion force were estimated from the voltage and current. Conductive toners as well as conductive polymer particles were used in this study. The toner adhesion forces were distributed from 10−11 to 10−7 N.
Yutaka Fukuchi, Manabu Takeuchi, "Particle Adhesion Force Measurements by Toner Jumping Method" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP15), 1999, pp 582 - 585, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1999.15.1.art00051_2