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Volume: 15 | Article ID: art00033_2
Satellite Formation in Transfer Gaps
  DOI :  10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1999.15.1.art00033_2  Published OnlineJanuary 1999

Toned electrophotographic images often exhibit toner satellites around alphanumeric characters and halftone dots. Among the electrophotographic subsystems, transfer is believed to be a frequent and even dominant source of such image artifacts. This paper reports on toner adhesion, detachment, and disruption as determined using a laboratory ultracentrifuge and an electrostatic detachment cell (ESD). The simplicity of this apparatus helps isolate factors contributing to satellite formation such as toner particle size, surface treatment, transfer gap (pre-nip or post-nip) and transfer electric field. Measurements have confirmed that surface-treatment can decrease adhesion and/or cohesion and increase the number, but not the spatial extent, of laterally displaced toners after gap-jumping. Results from both the ultracentrifuge and the ESD show that, even for highly surface-treated toner, only a small fraction of toner is removed by the normally-directed electrostatic forces encountered during transfer from photoconductor to paper. In contrast, relatively weak tangential forces cause toner to move laterally; suggesting an additional mechanism for satellite formation that need not involve gap jumping.

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R. D. Fields, A. J. Rushing, D. S. Rimai, A. H. Hoskins, "Satellite Formation in Transfer Gapsin Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP15),  1999,  pp 503 - 507,

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