Innovations can be described by an innovation cycle, which characterizes the balance companies place between growth of new businesses and efficiency, cost, and quality in support of established businesses. Inventors are faced with the dilemma between improving product performance or devoting resources to high-risk disruptive technologies. Disruptive technologies can completely change the marketplace within which large firms compete. There are barriers for large companies making investments in potentially disruptive technologies. Customers don't value the investment. The initial small markets available don't meet the growth needs of the company. The ultimate uses of the technology are not known in advance. Failure is an intrinsic step toward advance. Large corporations can take a systematic approach to identify, to support and to develop, emerging market opportunities.
Rafik Loutfy, "Management of Innovation in Large Corporations" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP15), 1999, pp 6 - 6, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1999.15.1.art00002_1