Several models of tribo-charging of two-component developers have been proposed to explain the tribo-charging mechanism. Some of these models do not clearly explain all tribo-charging phenomena, e.g., the toner q/m is independent on toner concentration. Recently, we presented a new model to describe the tribo-electric charging characteristics of two-component developers. According to a new model, the dependence of tribo-electric charging characteristics on toner concentration is governed by the relative difference of charging site numbers between toners and carriers. Our model can clearly explain the tribo-charging phenomenon of two-component developers. We will compare and evaluate the various tribo-charging models for two-component developer with experimental results.
Won-Sup Lee, Yasusuke Takahashi, "Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tribo-Charging Models for Two-Component Developer" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP14), 1998, pp 319 - 323, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1998.14.1.art00078_1