We have studied the free-volume trapping phenomenon in multiactive photoconductors with separate charge generation and charge transport layers, CGL and CTL respectively. We have found that trapping occurs in the CGL at weakly absorbed wavelength. We have identified the charge transport material DAPM as the source of the trapping. DAPM's oxidation potential is 0.15 eV less than TTA or TAPC. We propose that excess free-volume amplified trapping of DAPM at the surface of the charge generating material enhances recombination of the geminate hole pair, resulting in lower photogeneration efficiency. This problem can be eliminated, even with the low concentration use of DAPM, when the charge generation layer is optimized for full light absorption at the top 1 micron surface.
Michel F. Molaire, "Free-Volume Trapping in Multiactive Photoconductors" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP14), 1998, pp 486 - 489, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1998.14.1.art00038_2