In dry toner electrophotography, hot-roll fusing is the method most commonly used to fix the toner to the media. In hot-roll fusing, the combined effects of time, temperature and pressure determine the fusing quality with respect to the degree of toner fixing and gloss level. Acceptable fusing quality can only be achieved when the process parameters are within the fusing latitude, or “fusing window.” In this paper, the effect of the fusing process parameters on gloss is studied experimentally using a computer-controlled hot-roll test apparatus. The roles of media and coating are also examined for insight into the mechanisms of gloss development. The importance of lubrication, fuser roller design, and other practical considerations for minimizing hot-offset and extending the fusing window are also touched on.
John C. Briggs, Ming-Kai Tse, David A. Telep, John Cavanaugh, "The Effect of Fusing on Gloss in Electrophotography" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP14), 1998, pp 456 - 461, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1998.14.1.art00031_2