Many electrophotographic printers use brushes of magnetic carrier particles in direct contact with a photoreceptor to develop electrostatic images. Toner particles move from the carriers to the photoreceptor in the presence of the latent image development field. Recent color electrophotographic printers such as the HP Laserjet color printer use a spaced single component development system where the toner supply does not directly contact the photoreceptor, but instead is transported across a gap by electric fields. In these systems, one can directly observe the toners traversing the gap by viewing images of light passing through the development nip. We have designed a system where we capture the image of the transmitted light with a high resolution, 255 gray level CCD camera. From these digital images, we can quantitatively extract the toner density and velocity as the particles traverse the nip. Using time delay photography with microsecond resolution we measure the response of the cloud to incoming images. Using organic film designed to hold charge on a permanent latent image we are able to capture images of fine line development. Quantifying the density and motion of toners in a gapped development nip has allowed us to generate accurate physical models.
Howard Mizes, Jim Beachner, Palghat Ramesh, Kristine German, "Optical Measurements of Toner Motion in a Development Nip" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP14), 1998, pp 409 - 412, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1998.14.1.art00019_2