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Volume: 14 | Article ID: art00019_1
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The Effect of Various Sputtering Parameters on Ta Phase Formation Using an I-Optimal Experimental Design
  DOI :  10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1998.14.1.art00019_1  Published OnlineJanuary 1998
Abstract

Five process factors are varied to find conditions necessary for α and β phase formation in tantalum thin films deposited on SiC. These are: sputtering time, input power, pre-sputter etch time, preheat time at 250 C and sputtering temperature. An empirical model is developed which predicts the maximum or minimum amount of β phase possible over a large range of film thickness (∼25 to ∼2,000 nm). The maximum predicted (average) % β phase at the maximum sputtering temperature is only 8%, with 95% confidence bounds of [5%, 12%]. The other factors place a much lower restriction on β phase formation. Pure α phase is easily produced over a wide range of operating conditions. Only a weak relationship is found between film thickness and phase composition. The Ta film resistivity increases with the amount of b phase, in agreement with the literature.

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Charles S. Whitman, "The Effect of Various Sputtering Parameters on Ta Phase Formation Using an I-Optimal Experimental Designin Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP14),  1998,  pp 80 - 84,  https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1998.14.1.art00019_1

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