Toner adhesion forces to an aluminum substratewere measured by toner jumping and centrifugalmethods to study the adhesion mechanism of toner particles. When measuring the toner adhesion forces by the toner jumpingmethod, a toner was spattered over on one of a pair of parallel aluminum electrodes. The dc voltage applied to the electrode was increased at a constant rate, and the occurrence of the toner jumping was observed by measuring the current flowing between the electrodes. The toner adhesion force was estimated from the voltage at the occurrence of the toner jumping. The numbers of toner particles which have a certain adhesion force were estimated from the voltage and current. Low resistivity toners were used in this study. The toner adhesion forces were distributed from 10−11 to 10−7 N. The influence of electrostatic and van der Waals forces to toner adhesion was discussed by comparing results of the toner jumping method and centrifugal method.
Yutaka Fukuchi, Manabu Takeuchi, "A Comparative Study on Toner Adhesion Force Measurements by Toner Jumping and Centrifugal Methods" in Proc. IS&T Int'l Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP14), 1998, pp 390 - 393, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.1998.14.1.art00014_2