Three-dimensional printing is a powder-based solid freeform fabrication technique. It is based on conventional ink jet printing technology, basic materials being powders and binders (inks). As the process uses colored binders, text and graphic elements can be reproduced on the objects. The reproduction of three-dimensional prints surface elements was evaluated, also using image analysis, which was studied as a tool for reproduction evaluation. A test target, consisting of selected geometric and text elements, was placed on the surface of designed three-dimensional plate. The test plates were placed in different relative xyz positions, as well as printed with different preferences. The evaluation was done on light microscope captures, while scanned images of three-dimensional prints surfaces were used and observed as well. Changes in three-dimensional printed surface elements reproduction due to the objects' positioning and printing preferences, and binder-powder interactions were discussed. Specific image analysis procedures were researched as a tool for objective reproduction evaluation.
Maja Stanić, Branka Lozo, Peter Walters, "Reproduction in Three-Dimensional Ink Jet Printing" in Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 2010, pp 60201-1 - 60201-7, https://doi.org/10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2010.54.6.060201