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Volume: 52 | Article ID: art00006
Comparative Studies of Gloss Development in Electrophotography and Offset Printing
  DOI :  10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.(2008)52:1(010504)  Published OnlineJanuary 2008

Gloss development is known to be different in offset printing and electrophotography. Gloss is also known to be determined by the topography, namely the three-dimensional profile, of the printed surface. This study aims to shed light on the difference between surface topography formation processes in offset printing and electrophotography. Our observations showed that in offset printing, printed surface topography forms through the following process: Upon ink transfer, the ink surface is uneven due to inhomogeneous ink layer splits. This unevenness is leveled out over time. Ink flows along the paper surface and the ink vehicle penetrates into the paper, thus yielding a printed surface topography consistent with the original paper surface topography. In electrophotography, printed surface topography was shown to form through the following process: Before fusing, roughness distribution along the unfused surface is characteristically similar to that of the paper surface. Pressure and heat applied upon fusing cause the toner to spread sideward, thus yielding a printed surface that is different from the original paper surface topography; more specifically, the printed surface becomes smoother than the paper surface. We then incorporated into electrophotography the processes which in offset printing appear relevant to formation of a printed surface topography that follows paper surface topography. This method of electrophotography produced a printed surface topography and print gloss more consistent with the paper surface topography.

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Yoshihisa Kitano, Akira Isogai, Toshiharu Enomae, "Comparative Studies of Gloss Development in Electrophotography and Offset Printingin Journal of Imaging Science and Technology,  2008,  pp 10504-1 - 10504-10,

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