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Volume: 50 | Article ID: art00010
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A Bidirectional Acid-Base Charging Model for Triboelectrification: part II. Experimental Verification by Inverse Gas Chromatography and Charging of Metal Oxides
  DOI :  10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.(2006)50:3(288)  Published OnlineMay 2006
Abstract

Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been applied to study the surface properties of developer materials, measuring acid, base, and dispersion interactions. Model carrier and toner particles were prepared, where the toner was blended with various nano-particulate metal oxide surface additives: Silica, titania, and alumina. Toner charging was determined with these surface additive formulations. IGC was used to characterize carrier and additive surface chemistry. Results from IGC were evaluated with respect to toner charge and to metal oxide work functions. A correlation was found between IGC-determined surface acid-base interaction parameters of the developer materials, and their work functions and triboelectric charge. Together, the IGC, work function, and charging results strongly support a work function model for developer charging, where the work function is determined by the acid and base properties of the developer components. Thus, as the ratio of the acid to base interaction parameters of the metal oxide surface additive increased, toner charge became more negative. The results are in quantitative agreement with the surface states charging model proposed in the companion paper in this series.

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Michael Hawkins, Cuong Vong, Vladislav Skorokhod, Henry Schreiber, Richard Veregin, Maria McDougall, "A Bidirectional Acid-Base Charging Model for Triboelectrification: part II. Experimental Verification by Inverse Gas Chromatography and Charging of Metal Oxidesin Journal of Imaging Science and Technology,  2006,  pp 288 - 293,  https://doi.org/10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.(2006)50:3(288)

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