Toner charge distributions in corona charged toner layers on a grounded metal plate were investigated. The charge distributions were measured through image analysis of the toner particles displaced onto a filter, depending on their charge to diameter ratio, after being blown off from the toner inlet into an electric field and dispersed. It has been confirmed that the toner charge distributions became broader by corona charging. In order to clarify the cause, dual toner layers have been formed by using different color toners, and the charge distributions at the upper and lower layers have been measured separately. The results show that the lower toner layer has a wider charge distribution than that of the upper layer. This result is attributable to the fact that the lower parts of the toner layer are covered with the upper toner layer and difficult to corona charge. The toner particles in the lower layer located at the opening of the overlapped upper layer tend to be highly corona charged, while the toner particles around the opening in the upper layer receive only a small amount of the corona charge. It has thus been shown that difference in charge distribution between the upper and lower parts of the toner layer is caused by the following mechanisms: 1) The toner particles at the lower part of the layer are shielded from corona charging ions by the upper layer; 2) The toner particles in the lower layer, which are located at the opening of the charged particles in the upper layer, receive more charging ions by concentration of the electric field; 3) The toner particles at the upper layer receive fewer charging ions because of higher electric potential owing to a longer distance from the grounded plate.
Akihiko Noda, Manabu Takeuchi, Jun Abe, Shota Oba, "Charge Distribution of Corona Charged Toner Particles" in Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 2005, pp 189 - 195, https://doi.org/10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2005.49.2.art00011