Time dependent layer-by-layer toner development in AC biased monocomponent systems is numerically simulated. For a given gap length, a uniform toner cloud is assumed to be formed in the gap prior to initial development. The normal electric field in the toner cloud is obtained by taking the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the spatial potential and subsequently taking the negative gradient of the potential. The field is then used to determine the locations of toner deposition in each toner layer, whose thickness is obtained from the average toner particle size. As the photoconductor (PC) rolls away from the developer, the effective gap length increases and the sinusoidal AC bias oscillates. The time dependent effective gap length as a function of PC rotation angle is calculated using conformal mapping techniques. Our development calculation is carried out iteratively until the developed layers from the positive and negative peaks of the AC bias stabilize. Simulation results using different input bitmaps are presented and analyzed.
Jang Yi, Richard B. Wells, "Simulation of Layer-By-Layer Toner Deposition from a Uniform Toner Cloud in Gap-Jump Monocomponent Development Systems with an AC Developer Bias" in Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 2004, pp 324 - 334, https://doi.org/10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2004.48.4.art00008