The Pareto-optimal approach to color management, presented previously by the authors, is further developed to allow for direct conversion into CMYK with complete user control over gray component replacement (GCR). The Pareto-optimal formulation unifies a number of strategies for transforming image data into CMYK: specification of arbitrary GCR, conversion using only chromatic inks, and conversion using at most two chromatic inks and black ink. Use of the black printer is analyzed in terms of extending the CMY gamut and replacing chromatic inks. The program NeuralColor is used to implement the Pareto-optimal formulation, providing data for in-depth analysis of the various conversion methods. NeuralColor accurately models the transformation from CIELAB to CMYK using artificial neural networks. Prints obtained using NeuralColor are accurate within 2 to 4 ΔE*ab across all levels of GCR.
David Littlewood, Ganesh Subbarayan, "Controlling the Gray Component with Pareto-Optimal Color Space Transformations" in Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 2002, pp 533 - 542, https://doi.org/10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2002.46.6.art00009