Images can be broadly categorized as belonging to one of two types of image states: unrendered and rendered. Images in an unrendered image state are directly related to the colorimetry of a real or hypothetical original scene. Images in a rendered image state are representations of
the colorimetry of an output image, such as a print or a CRT display. Over the years, many device-dependent and device-independent color encodings have been used to represent images in both of these image states. This has resulted in a host of interoperability problems between various systems.
There would be a significant advantage to standardizing on a small number of color encodings for the purposes of storage, interchange and manipulation of digital images. While the recently agreed upon
Kevin E. Spaulding, Geoffrey J. Woolfe, Edward J. Giorgianni, "Optimized Extended Gamut Color Encoding for Scene-Referred and Output-Referred Image States" in Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 2001, pp 418 - 426, https://doi.org/10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2001.45.5.art00002