The process of liquid immersion development (LID) has been thoroughly investigated theoretically and experimentally. Special interest has been devoted to the influence of space charge. The study reveals that the linear model commonly used for the description of the development process is not valid for typical conditions of LID. Consequently a model is proposed that considers such complexities as space charges and, in a first approximation, charge generation and turbulences. Special methods presented for measuring the parameters describing the toner suspension for LID minimize the influence of the stated complexities. With these parameters, our model achieves a better accuracy over a wide range of toner concentrations and electric field strengths than other known models for the LID process. We believe that coupling between space charge and turbulence effects for high concentrations leads to a considerably more accelerated development than that predicted by a linear or space-charge model. Additionally, the coupling leads to an approximately linear relationship as long as development does not come to saturation.
G. Bartscher, J. Breithaupt, "New Aspects for the Description of Liquid Immersion Development" in Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 1996, pp 441 - 452, https://doi.org/10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.1996.40.5.art00014