We describe and experimentally validate an end-to-end simulation of a digital camera. The simulation models the spectral radiance of 3D-scenes, formation of the spectral irradiance by multi-element optics, and conversion of the irradiance to digital values by the image sensor. We
quantify the accuracy of the simulation by comparing real and simulated images of a precisely constructed, three-dimensional high dynamic range test scene. Validated end-to-end software simulation of a digital camera can accelerate innovation by reducing many of the time-consuming and expensive
steps in designing, building and evaluating image systems.