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Volume: 33 | Article ID: art00008
Holistic Image Manipulation Detection using Pixel Cooccurrence Matrices
  DOI :  10.2352/ISSN.2470-1173.2021.4.MWSF-277  Published OnlineJanuary 2021

Digital image forensics aims to detect images that have been digitally manipulated. Realistic image forgeries involve a combination of splicing, resampling, region removal, smoothing and other manipulation methods. While most detection methods in literature focus on detecting a particular type of manipulation, it is challenging to identify doctored images that involve a host of manipulations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to holistically detect tampered images using a combination of pixel co-occurrence matrices and deep learning. We extract horizontal and vertical co-occurrence matrices on three color channels in the pixel domain and train a model using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) framework. Our method is agnostic to the type of manipulation and classifies an image as tampered or untampered. We train and validate our model on a dataset of more than 86,000 images. Experimental results show that our approach is promising and achieves more than 0.99 area under the curve (AUC) evaluation metric on the training and validation subsets. Further, our approach also generalizes well and achieves around 0.81 AUC on an unseen test dataset comprising more than 19,740 images released as part of the Media Forensics Challenge (MFC) 2020. Our score was highest among all other teams that participated in the challenge, at the time of announcement of the challenge results.

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Lakshmanan Nataraj, Michael Goebel, Tajuddin Manhar Mohammed, Shivkumar Chandrasekaran, B. S. Manjunath, "Holistic Image Manipulation Detection using Pixel Cooccurrence Matricesin Proc. IS&T Int’l. Symp. on Electronic Imaging: Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics,  2021,  pp 277-1 - 277-7,

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