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Volume: 31 | Article ID: art00016
A Natural Steganography Embedding Scheme Dedicated to Color Sensors in the JPEG Domain
  DOI :  10.2352/ISSN.2470-1173.2019.5.MWSF-542  Published OnlineJanuary 2019

Using Natural Steganography (NS), a cover raw image acquired at sensitivity ISO1 is transformed into a stego image whose statistical distribution is similar to a cover image acquired at sensitivity ISO2 > ISO1. This paper proposes such an embedding scheme for color sensors in the JPEG domain, extending thus the prior art proposed for the pixel domain and the JPEG domain for monochrome sensors. We first show that color sensors generate strong intra-block and inter-block dependencies between DCT coefficients and that theses dependencies are due to the demosaicking step in the development process. Capturing theses dependencies using an empirical covariance matrix, we propose a pseudo-embedding algorithm on greyscale JPEG images which uses up to four sub-lattices and 64 lattices to embed information while preserving the estimated correlations among DCT coefficients. We then compute an approximation of the average embedding rate w.r.t. the JPEG quality factor and evaluate the empirical security of the proposed scheme for linear and non-linear demosaicing schemes. Our experiments show that we can achieve high capacity (around 2 bit per nzAC) with a high empirical security (PE ≃ 30% using DCTR at QF 95).

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Théo Taburet, Patrick Bas, Wadih Sawaya, Jessica Fridrich, "A Natural Steganography Embedding Scheme Dedicated to Color Sensors in the JPEG Domainin Proc. IS&T Int’l. Symp. on Electronic Imaging: Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics,  2019,  pp 542-1 - 542-11,

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