Research has shown that in digital imaging sensors "Hot Pixels" defects accumulate as the camera ages over time. We have previously developed an empirical formula that projects hot pixel defects growth rates in terms of defect density (defects/year/mm2). We found that hot pixel densities grow via a power law, with the inverse of the pixel size raised to the power of about 3, and the ISO (gain) raised to the power of about 0.5. This paper experimentally explores the defect rates as pixels approach the 2 to 1 micron size. An analysis of the hot pixel parameters statistics shows that stuck high pixels that develop in the field are actually stuck hot pixels. In addition, this analysis indicates that as pixels shrink, not only does the defect rate increase, but it produces both a larger number of weak hot pixels at all ISOs, and a larger number of strong hot pixels at higher ISOs.
Glenn H. Chapman, Rahul Thomas, Israel Koren, Zahava Koren, "Hot Pixel Behavior as Pixel Size Reduces to 1 micron" in Proc. IS&T Int’l. Symp. on Electronic Imaging: Image Sensors and Imaging Systems, 2017, pp 39 - 45, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2470-1173.2017.11.IMSE-183