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Volume: 28 | Article ID: art00012
Individual Differences in Color Naming
  DOI :  10.2352/ISSN.2470-1173.2016.16.HVEI-114  Published OnlineFebruary 2016

Color naming shows great diversity worldwide, across languages and even within languages, but there are only about 11 named color categories, which are universal across languages and occur in only a few distinct, universal motifs. Most world languages contain multiple motifs among their speakers. Color communication using these motifs is not optimal, even when controlling for the number of color terms they contain. This is due to the diversity across individuals, including: which colors are not named, which motif is used, low consensus about the terms for the colors that are named, and where the boundaries are between the colors.

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Delwin T Lindsey, Angela M Brown, "Individual Differences in Color Namingin Proc. IS&T Int’l. Symp. on Electronic Imaging: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging,  2016,

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