Color naming shows great diversity worldwide, across languages and even within languages, but there are only about 11 named color categories, which are universal across languages and occur in only a few distinct, universal motifs. Most world languages contain multiple motifs among
their speakers. Color communication using these motifs is not optimal, even when controlling for the number of color terms they contain. This is due to the diversity across individuals, including: which colors are not named, which motif is used, low consensus about the terms for the colors
that are named, and where the boundaries are between the colors.