Two scales (i.e., Cho's whiteness scale and Berns' depth scale) were investigated to see whether they can accurately predict the whiteness of surface colors (e.g., textile and paper), both scales were found to be highly correlated to the NCS samples in past studies. The results indicated that the whiteness of samples without FWA-enhancement was highly correlated to both scales, but neither of them can predict the whiteness of FWA-enhanced white samples. These FWA-enhanced samples did not follow the concept that higher lightness and lower chroma produce whiter appearance. The study suggests the necessity to have a unique model to characterize the whiteness of FWA-enhanced whites, especially given the wide use of FWAs around human beings.
M Wei, S Ma, MR Luo, "The Necessity of a Whiteness Scale for FWA-enhanced Whites" in Proc. IS&T 24th Color and Imaging Conf. , 2016, https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-2629.2017.32.237