Capturing images of paintings is a challenging field where the photographer must struggle between the balance of evenly illuminating the painting and using extreme lighting angles to enhance the painting's physical attributes. Flat-fielding is a scientific technique that has the ability to preserve the enhanced physical attributes of the painting while also providing uniform illumination across the scene. When the flat-fielding is done in post-camera processing, the non-flat-fielded image is preserved and can be used in conjunction with the flat-fielded image to illustrate the varying degrees between directional lighting, typical of a gallery environments, and the uniform illumination often seen in archiving studios.
Joel Witwer, Roy S. Berns, "Increasing the Versatility of Digitizations through Post-Camera Flat-Fielding" in Proc. IS&T Archiving 2015, 2015, pp 110 - 113, https://doi.org/10.2352/issn.2168-3204.2015.12.1.art00027